A complex wastewater treatment system to avoid a prohibition of discharge by the local authorities

Introduction In many industrial operations, the products produced in campaigns vary greatly in their composition. This is common in waste management companies, chemical and pharmaceutical production sites, as examples. These campaigns often change because of different input streams, smaller but different production lots, as well as frequent contract manufacturing. This may also lead to fluctuating…

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Emergency VOC reduction for the pharmaceutical industry

Introduction A common practice in chemical or pharmaceutical plants is to collect VOC (volatile organic compounds) laden air or gas streams and treat them in one central place. for example, in a thermal combustion unit. Thermal combustion units need maintenance or, in the event of sudden breakdown, replacement by an alternative technology. Mobile filters with…

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How Jacobi helps make disinfectant during coronavirus crisis.

How Jacobi helps make disinfectant during coronavirus crisis. Several beverage and chemical producers are contributing to support the fight against the Corona virus. One of the efforts is to produce pure alcohol for the production disinfectant gels. The Jacobi group can support and accelerate these efforts with readily available samples, different adsorption media and ready…

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Formaldehyde removal from air with activated carbon

Formaldehyde, IUPAC name methanal, is the simplest aldehyde, with the formula, CH₂O. Its structure is shown in Figure 1. It occurs naturally but is toxic and highly volatile. Figure 1: Structure of formaldehyde Removal of formaldehyde is complex as it can adopt many forms. In its simplest form, formaldehyde is a gas. It is skin-irritating…

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Selection of the auxiliary equipment for air and gas treatment systems

The design or selection of the auxiliary equipment of an activated carbon filter depends on a combination of different selection criteria and must be in accordance with the local safety rules. Fan When selecting an industrial fan, we must take into consideration different criteria: Flow rate Can the fan deliver the required flow rate needed…

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Design and selection of activated carbon air and gas treatment systems

The design of an activated filter will determine the energy consumption and the activated carbon usage of an adsorption treatment system. Jacobi Services offers a complete range of compact mobile filters of the type EcoFlow™ designed for optimal flow distribution, low pressure loss and for optimum activated carbon consumption. The design or selection of a…

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Pourbaix Diagram

What is a Pourbaix diagram This section will explain the Pourbaix diagram and the parameters that influence the speciation of chemical elements in a solution such as pH Redox Ions in water can have different oxidation numbers depending on the potential of the water. Each different ion will dissociate into different species depending on pH.…

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Chromium removal from water

Where does chromium come from? Chromium, which is evenly distributed in the earth’s crust, is obtained from chromite ores, an iron chromium oxide mineral (FeCr₂O₄). The hexavalent chromium (Cr˅ˡ⁺) is very toxic and has both mutagenic and carcinogenic effects, in contrast to the trivalent elementary chromium (Crˡˡˡ⁺), which is an essential nutrient. Figure 1: Chromite ore.…

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Odour control

Definitions Odour is the property of a substance that activates the sense of smell and can cause nuisance and health damage. Companies can emit odour (emissions) to the environment that can bother people and lead to complaints and bad publicity. Fugitive emissions contribute to air pollution and climate change as well as an economic cost…

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Air treatment with activated carbon in soil remediation projects

In certain soil remediation projects, there can be a need for purification of exhaust from air strippers, tent ventilation and even the interstitial air in the ground present naturally or under purge from treatment systems. Air Strippers The pump and treat method is a technology often used in soil remediation projects where contaminated groundwater is extracted by…

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Perchlorate (ClO₄¯) ion removal from water

Perchlorate is poorly abundant on earth, except combined with sodium nitrate mineral in some specific arid areas. Natural perchlorate is extracted to produce fertilisers. Perchlorate is intensively used in the formulation of explosive propellant for various explosives and weapons. To cover this strategic need, perchlorate is produced industrially. Perchlorate Molecular structure of perchlorate. Perchlorate is…

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Ammonia (NH₃) removal from air

Introduction Ammonia (NH₃) is a colourless, low molecular weight gas with the chemical formula NH₃ (See figure 1). It has a pungent smell, often associated with strong household cleaners. Ammonia (NH₃) is lighter than air but can be easily condensed to a liquid due to strong hydrogen bonding between the ammonia molecules (hydrogen bonding is…

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Nickel (Ni²⁺) removal from water using chelating resins

Where does nickel come from? Pure nickel (Ni) is a silvery-white metal that is rarely found as a pure metal in the earth’s crust because it will oxidise when it comes into contact with oxygen. Pure nickel can be found in the interiors of larger nickel–iron meteorites that were not exposed to oxygen when outside the earth’s atmosphere or in ultramafic rocks.   Nickel is…

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Mercury (Hg⁰ and Hg²⁺) removal from water

Introduction Mercury species exists in various forms: elemental (or metallic); inorganic (e.g. mercuric chloride); and organic mercury (e.g., methyl- and ethylmercury), which all have different toxic effects. Mercury poisoning can result from exposure to water-soluble forms of mercury (such as mercuric chloride or methylmercury), inhalation of mercury vapour, or by ingesting any form of mercury.…

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Lead (Pb²⁺) removal from water using chelating resins

Where does lead come from? Lead is most commonly found as lead (II) sulphide (PbS) in the mineral galenite. Cerussite (tin-lead ore), with the chemical composition lead (II) carbonate (PbCO₃), is a secondary mineral of lead formed by the chemical reaction of carbonated water with galena. A third important source of lead is anglesite (lead…

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Hydrogen sulphide (H₂S) removal from water

The “rotten egg” odour in some water supplies is caused by sulphide in water. Sulphide can be treated using oxidation techniques, the goal being to convert the sulphide to high oxidation state species such as sulphate to eliminate the taste and odour concerns. Traditional oxidation techniques such as ozone and chlorine can be used but…

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Arsine (AsH₃) removal from air

Introduction Arsine (AsH₃) is an extremely toxic gas that is generated upon exposure of arsenic-containing ores to acids. It is also a by-product of refining of non-ferrous metals. Arsine is used extensively in the manufacture of microchips, solid-state lasers and for the synthesis of organoarsenic compounds. Arsine (AsH₃) is a colourless, flammable, non-irritating toxic gas…

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Phosphine (PH₃) removal from air

Introduction Phosphine is the compound with the chemical formula PH₃. Phosphine (PH₃) is used as an intermediate in organophosphorus chemistry and as a dopant in the semiconductor industry. Phosphine (PH₃) is alsowidely used as a fumigant (for example, in the tobacco industry) that does not leave residues on the stored product, and for pest control.…

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Landfill Leachate – Jacobi Carbons Improves & COD Removal Process

Introduction The properties of land fill leachate varies widely in composition depended on different factors such as the age of the landfill and the type of waste that is stored in the landfill. Water percolating through the waste will promote the micobiological decomposition of organics. This digestion process rapidily use up any available oxygen creating…

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Mobile Filters + Activated Carbons For Sugar Syrup Taste & Colour Treatment

The Problem Liquid Sucrose or sugar produced from beet or, occasionally, cane sugar can contain different taste or colour compounds. To combat this, a granular activated carbon process was developed using mobile filters to produce colourless and transparent liquid sucrose solutions with a neutral, sweet taste, free from any off-flavours. Application Information Liquid sucrose stream…

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