A complex wastewater treatment system to avoid a prohibition of discharge by the local authorities

Introduction In many industrial operations, the products produced in campaigns vary greatly in their composition. This is common in waste management companies, chemical and pharmaceutical production sites, as examples. These campaigns often change because of different input streams, smaller but different production lots, as well as frequent contract manufacturing. This may also lead to fluctuating…

Pourbaix Diagram

What is a Pourbaix diagram This section will explain the Pourbaix diagram and the parameters that influence the speciation of chemical elements in a solution such as pH Redox Ions in water can have different oxidation numbers depending on the potential of the water. Each different ion will dissociate into different species depending on pH.…

Chromium removal from water

Where does chromium come from? Chromium, which is evenly distributed in the earth’s crust, is obtained from chromite ores, an iron chromium oxide mineral (FeCr₂O₄). The hexavalent chromium (Cr˅ˡ⁺) is very toxic and has both mutagenic and carcinogenic effects, in contrast to the trivalent elementary chromium (Crˡˡˡ⁺), which is an essential nutrient. Figure 1: Chromite ore.…

Odour control

Definitions Odour is the property of a substance that activates the sense of smell and can cause nuisance and health damage. Companies can emit odour (emissions) to the environment that can bother people and lead to complaints and bad publicity. Fugitive emissions contribute to air pollution and climate change as well as an economic cost…

Air treatment with activated carbon in soil remediation projects

In certain soil remediation projects, there can be a need for purification of exhaust from air strippers, tent ventilation and even the interstitial air in the ground present naturally or under purge from treatment systems. Air Strippers The pump and treat method is a technology often used in soil remediation projects where contaminated groundwater is extracted by…